Cryo Note, une synthèse des différentes techniques de préparation cryo

« Visualize the truth » is a hope of researchers who use various measuring equipments. Researchers who use electron microscopes as well have a desire to observe the real structure. One recommended solution is to cool the specimen, that is « Cryo’ techniques. This Cryo Note introduces some of the diversified cryo-techniques.
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Easy cryo-SEM

The technique can be thought of as ‘easy cryo-SEM’ and is a simple and cost effective means of looking at fully hydrated materials or other electron beam and vacuum sensitive samples.
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Difference of observation result by cooling method – whipcream (frozen)

In this application note, we will introduce the observation results of whip cream which is easily impacted by the heat, by using three kinds of methods of different cooling temperatures : 1. cooling stage, 2. LV cooling holder, and 3. LV cryo SEM method.
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Yokogushi : TEM & NMR combine technique for full crystaline structure

Crystalline structure including hydrogen atoms are now available from nano- to micro-crystals of 100 nm to 1 μm using electron and NMR nano-crystallography approach. The overall crystalline structures can be determined by electron diffraction (ED) which is one of the observation mode of transmission electron microscope (TEM).
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JEOL Gatan 3View® Serial Block Face Imaging System

3View Serial Block Face Imaging of Synapse using JEOL Scanning Electron Microscope. Courtesy of Professor Deniz Kirik and Lina Gefors, Bioimaging Center, Medical Faculty, Lund University, Sweden.
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SEM-Correlative Microscopy_Photomontage_SEM Supporter

EM Supporter software automates SEM image collection, creation of a photo montage and image analysis*. Initial navigation and set up can be accomplished from any image (optical microscope, digital camera, SEM image) enabling correlative microscopy. Recipes can be created for moving to specific locations on a multiple sample set for collection of individual images or creating a grid for photo montage collection.
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SEM-STEM detector

STEM-in-SEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy in an SEM) has become a popular technique for biologists, polymer scientists and materials scientists for its ease of use, cost effectiveness and high resolution. It is especially suited to investigating the internal structure of thin film (100-200nm) samples as well as size and shape of submicron to nanometer particles.
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SEM – Aqua Cover tecnique for direct observation of water containing sample

Direct observation of water containing specimens as they are with ordinary SEMs is one of the long desired goals of SEM. We have succeeded to observe a water droplet with a newly developed technique, Aqua Cover technique, with a commercial SEM, JSM-IT300LV. Aqua Cover, as you will see, can easily be extended to observe any water containing specimen.
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Food analysis solutions application note

Four demands have developed in the food product field for highly accurate, objective evaluation technologies to analyze aspects such as nutritional components, flavors and tastes, texture, and antioxidation functions.
JEOL offers numerous analytical tools to support both “food safety & security” as well as various evaluations of primary, secondary and tertiary functions of foodstuffs which are useful for a wide range of users associated with this field.
This Foodnote introduces the features of each of the instruments and actual analysis examples, and is designed for researchers and engineers who are considering purchases of instruments. This brochure also presents comprehensive evaluations and analysis solutions that can be achieved with combinations of multiple instruments.
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BioNote

Instrumental analysis has contributed to the progress of biological science, through the observation of morphology, the chemical analysis of compounds, the elucidation of amino acid sequences of proteins, etc. Furthermore, this progress has been accelerated by the development of analytical methods, which are used in diverse fields like medical science, agriculture, food and biotechnology, as well as the basic research work like physiology, biochemistry and genetics.
This Bionote presents an overview of the basics, namely principles and features of various instruments, as well as application examples using numerous optional attachments. We hope that the Bionote will assist researchers and engineers who intend to perform analyses in finding and exploring new approaches.
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Poster SXES sur la détection du lithium

Three samples of a lithium-ion battery anode with different charging conditions are analyzed with SXES: 0 % (A), 30 % (B) and 100 % (C).
→ 3 maps constructed in 3 energy ranges corresponding to satellite of Li-K, Li-K and C-K.

Imaging and Analyzing Graphene Layers

Graphene is a crystalline form of carbon defined as a hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms in a one-atom thick planar sheet. Graphene has outstanding properties (mainly mechanical strength, optical transparency and excellent electrical and heat conductivity) that make it an attractive material for electronics applications.
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Magnetic Material Analysis Using the Super Hybrid Lens (SHL)

The SHL is a newly designed objective lens for high-resolution observation at low accelerating voltages. Unlike the semi-in lens SEM, with a large electromagnetic field below the lens, which was widely used for high-resolution, low kV observation, the SHL achieves high resolution by superimposing a magnetic field onto the electrostatic field to suppress magnetic field leakage.
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Note d'application correlative microscopy EBSD TEMApplications of Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction in FE-SEM

Natasha Erdman and Masateru Shibata

Recent developments in SEM column design have led to the ability to produce nanometer spot sizes even at high probe currents [1], thus pushing the analytical techniques available in the SEM to conduct microanalysis with ultra-high spatial resolution.
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Télécharger LIBnote

LIBnote : Lithium ion battery basic structure and fabrication process

The applications for lithium ion batteries (LIB) cover a wide range, from power sources for personal computers and mobile devices to automobiles, and there is always a demand for even better performance and safety. In order to ensure the performance and quality of LIB, analysis and evaluation using high-performance assessment systems is necessary. JEOL offers a full line-up of equipment to support the development of new LIB technologies and to improve product quality, including instruments for morphology observation and surface analysis, chemical analysis systems to perform structural analysis on a molecular level, as well as fabrication systems to create high-performance coatings and powders. This LIB note offers solutions for researchers and engineers who are looking for the best equipment for their application.
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BatteryNote

Battery cells are essential in modern life as they are extensively used in mobile phones, personal computers, and even as the power source of some automobiles in recent years. In addition, the research and development of rechargeable batteries has become increasingly important in the endeavor to realize a low-carbon society.
The demand for fuel cells as hydrogen-based generators is also expected to grow, as fuel cells have already been widely applied to household equipment and automobiles.
JEOL believes that analyses and evaluations by using various high-performance evaluation instruments are required to improve both the performance and quality of these battery cells.
JEOL offers a wide variety of analytical instruments available for morphological observations, surface analyses, structure analyses, and chemical analyses at micro- to nano-scales for the purposes of research, development, and quality improvement.
This Battery Note has been created to provide solutions and reference information for research and development activities focused on lithium ion batteries (LIBs).
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TEM-HAADF – Quantification du contraste HAADF

A procedure that produces sub-nanometrically resolved chemical mappings of MOCVD-grown
InGaAs/InAlAs/InP quantum cascade lasers is presented. The chemical mappings reveal that,
although the structure is lattice-matched to InP, the InAlAs barriers do not attain the nominal aluminum content—48%—and are, in fact, InGaAlAs quaternaries. This information is used to adjust the aluminum precursor flow and fine-tune the composition of the barriers, resulting in a significant improvement of the fabricated lasers.
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YOKOGUSHI – Study of a gold star mothers stamp

Experimental : A Gold Star Mothers Stamp from 1948 has a lead chromate pigment that
we analyzed via: the JSM-IT300LV with an EDS spectrometer, the JMS-T100LP “AccuTOF DART” and the JMS-S3000 “SpiralTOF”.
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SEM – Extreme Low Voltage Imaging with JEOL FE-SEMs

The current lineup of JEOL FE-SEMs offers a cutting edge Through-The-Lens (TTL) electron column design that minimizes effects of chromatic and spherical aberrations on the ultimate probe size (improved resolution). This novel electron column design also features a TTL detector with an energy filter combined with a precise control of the landing energy of the primary electron beam (beam deceleration via Gentle Beam function), which has created new opportunities for specimen observation.
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SEM – Energy Filter-UED

JEOL’s in column Upper Electron Detector (Through The Lens Detector) provides not only ultra-high resolution imaging but also includes a user selectable energy filter allowing the user to study a sample under different contrast mechanisms.
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TEM – TEM sample holder for Lithium or air sensitive sample study

The lithium analysis by TEM requires to keep the sample under neutral atmosphere preventing its
oxidation. For this purpose, JEOL has developed a special TEM sample holder.
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SEM – 3D Image software

JEOL’s Three Dimensional Image Software is a program that uses stereo pair SEM images to construct a three dimensional (3D) image of the sample surface. From this 3D image, height and contour maps can be created to provide cross sectional shape and height data.
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MS SpiralTOF – TOF Synthetic Polymer Structure Analysis PPG

In this work, we analyzed Polypropylene Glycol (PPG) by using the JMS-S3000 SpiralTOF with the TOF-TOF option. The resulting high-energy CID data was then processed using the Polymerix™ (Sierra Analytics, Inc., http://massspec.com/) analysis software.
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SEM – What is the magnification ?

Magnification can be a very deceptive number on SEM micrographs. As we all know, magnification is defined as the ratio of the size of the rastered area on the sample to the size of the rastered area of the output.
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JSX-JXA – Analyse by X ray fluorescence and microprobe of cracks in brass piping parts

In order to understand the cause and minimize the recurrence of a product malfunction, it is necessary to pursue defects at an early stage.
An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (ED-XRF) can provide fast, non-destructive elemental analysis for any sample state such as solid, liquid, or powder. It can be utilized as a quick screening instrument to track down the source of problems.
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High-resolution spatial distribution of chemical composition on a pyrite surrounded by oxide / hydroxide phases

In this study, a geological thin section of a meta-arkose in a serpentinite was
chosen. Within the meta-arkose rock is a pyrite surrounded by different mineral phases that appear to have variable chemical composition. This area was therefore selected for the identification and distribution of the different elemental assemblages.
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Note about advantages of the ion-polishing technique for the preservation of the internal shale structureNatasha Erdman and Nicholas Drenzek, 2013, Integrated preparation and imaging techniques for the microstructural and geochemical characterization of shale by scanning electron microscopy, in W. Camp, E. Diaz, and B. Wawak, eds., Electron microscopy of shale hydrocarbon reservoirs: AAPG Memoir 102, p. 7–14.

To better understand the influence of microscale geochemical and microstructural relationships on the bulk petrophysical properties of unconventional shale systems, core samples from four producing North American formations were cross-sectioned with an argon ion polisher and imaged with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) using a variety of complementary detectors. We demonstrate distinct advantages of the ion-polishing technique for the preservation of the internal shale structure. Moreover, we show how such preparation affords a wider choice of imaging options for both chemical and structural characterization, such as backscatter electron observation at varying beam potentials coupled with x-ray and cathodoluminescence spectroscopic techniques.
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Meteorite application with SEM

Meteorite with EPMA

Microbeam and x-ray analysis of minerals, water analysis, stable isotope analysis, and age-dating in labs at UNM.
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JXA-Monazite

JEOL’s MonaziteAge program follows the dating procedure outlined originally by Suzuki and Adachi (1991, 1994), and Suzuki and others (1994). It can be used with both Th-rich phases and more U- rich phases, such as zircon or xenotime. It allows the user to calculate the age of a monazite grain from a single analytical point or from a set of analyses. When multiple analyses are used to determine a single age, the method will correct for non-radiogenic lead or for lead leaching that may have taken place. When creating age maps, the method uses the same procedure as that for a single analysis, but applies it to each pixel.
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JXA-Trace element mapping

Backscatterred electron images of monazite, WDS trace element mapping.
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SEM-MLA

AZtecMineral is a powerful, automated, Mineral Liberation Analysis solution. It enables ore characterisation, provides vital data on metal recovery and enables process yield characterisation using multipurpose SEMs. It is also a valuable tool for the characterisation of rocks in research environments, enabling the automation of otherwise laborious optical analyses.
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PolymernotePolymers note. Characterization of Polymers by JEOL Solutions

Polymers are used in a wide range of fields such as food wrapping materials, medicine packing, and industrial materials and products. Properties and functionalities of polymer materials are dependent on various factors, including molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, molecular chemical structures (primary structures), morphology of molecular chains (secondary structures) depending on the spinning angles of chemical bonds, and crystalline or non-crystalline structures of inner-molecules and inter-molecules, as well as spherulite structure aggregates, phase separation structures and orientations (higher-order structures). It is of prime importance to analyze and evaluate the structures and properties of polymers as well as the correlation between these two factors, and to feed these analysis and evaluation results to the development and manufacturing sites for the enhancement of the performance and quality control of polymer materials and polymer products. On the other hand, industry in Japan is supported by functional molecules, which are becoming more advanced and more complicated. This makes it more difficult to characterize such polymers, thereby increasing the importance of multiple analyses that combine a variety of analytical methods. This Polymer note introduces a broad range of instruments used for polymer analysis and their applications.
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Yokogushi : TEM & NMR combine technique for full crystaline structure

Crystalline structure including hydrogen atoms are now available from nano- to micro-crystals of 100 nm to 1 μm using electron and NMR nano-crystallography approach. The overall crystalline structures can be determined by electron diffraction (ED) which is one of the observation mode of transmission electron microscope (TEM).
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Direct analysis of a methanol flame by using a compact high-resolution multi-turn mass spectrometer

The InfiTOF can be used for “In-situ” high-resolution monitoring of real-time gas phase reactions like combustion. In this work, we show the real-time monitoring of combustion products in a diffuse methanol flame by using this compact high resolution TOF-MS system.
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Analysis of a gas mixture containing ammonia and methane by using a compact high-resolution multi-turn mass spectrometer

Analysis of a chemical ionization reagent gas consisting of a 5% mixture of ammonia in methane is demonstrated by using the JEOL InfiTOFTM compact high-resolution mass spectrometer.
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Real time monitoring for gas phase h/d exchange reaction in H2O and D2O by using a compact high-resolution multi-turn mass spectrometer

The InfiTOF is suitable for real time gas reaction monitoring. In this report, we showed real time monitoring for H/D exchange reaction of light water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O) which is one of the simplest chemical reaction.
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YOKOGUSHI-Study of a gold star mothers stamp

In  this  applications  note,  we  performed  an  analysis  of  a  Gold  Star Mothers  Postage  Stamp  by  using  three  JEOL  instruments.  We  used  the JSM-IT300LV, the JMS-T100LP  « AccuTOF-DART » and the JMS-S3000 « SpiralTOF ».
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MS SpiralTOF MALDI for small molecule analysis : A complex drug mixture

This is shown here for the high-resolution analysis of a mixture of 32 small-molecule drugs analyzed by MALDI with the JEOL SpiralTOF mass spectrometer.
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MS SpiralTOF-TOF Synthetic Polymer Structure Anlaysis PPG

In this work, we analyzed Polypropylene Glycol (PPG) by using the JMS-S3000 SpiralTOF with the TOF-TOF option.
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NMR Single-Tuned 4 mm Cryocoil MAS Probe

A tunable single-tuned 4 mm Cryocoil MAS probe was developed, and demonstrated for 6Li and 29Si under 14.1 T WB magnet.
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SEM-TTL System-New approach for reduction of the effectsof lens aberrations

Imaging of nanostructured materials requires a new design of SEM that provides ultimate resolution for both imaging and microanalysis, combined with the ability to image any type of material. An innovative new SEM column design from JEOL Ltd. utilizes a hybrid lens (combination electrostatic and electromagnetic lenses) in conjunction with a Through-The-Lens (TTL) detection system to provide the user with ultimate imaging and analytical performance.
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SEM- Extreme Low Voltage Imaging with JEOL FE-SEMs

Low voltage imaging has become a key technique for charge control and reduction, especially in the cases where no surface modification (for example conductive coating) can be employed to alleviate specimen charging during SEM observation.
The current lineup of JEOL FE-SEMs offers a cutting edge Through-The-Lens (TTL) electron column design that minimizes effects of chromatic and spherical aberrations on the ultimate probe size (improved resolution).
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SEM- CD Energy Filter-UED

JEOL’s in column Upper Electron Detector (Through The Lens Detector) provides not only ultra-high resolution imaging but also includes a user selectable energy filter allowing the user to study a sample under different contrast mechanisms.
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COATER-SMART COATER

JEOL’s Smart Coater is a fully automated sputter coater that applies a fine grained gold or platinum coating on samples for imaging in a scanning electron microscope.
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